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Mays , G. Schneider Eds. Factors Influencing Behavior and Behavior Change. Baum , T.
Singer Eds. Wasserheit , S. Holmes Eds. These models are criticised for disregarding the influence of contextual variables — social-political and economic contexts within which the individual functions — as well as other related differentials of self-efficacy and power in sexual interactions. The role of mass media and other communication strategies in behavioural formation and change is thus clearly documented.
Lusaka , Sida. Aggleton Aggleton, P. Behavior Change Communication Strategies. Religious and other community officials fall in this category of change agents at an individual, societal, and policy level, and are therefore appropriate in addressing HIV- and AIDS-related issues at these levels.
Social influence theory explains why some people listen to others and how one person persuades others to change their beliefs, opinions, and attitudes Friedkin Friedkin, N.
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A Structural Theory of Social Influence. Cambridge , Cambridge University Press. Servaes Ed. Research has found that people are willing to go against their own beliefs to harm another when instructed to do so by an authority, while some use opinions of others as a guide to reality in situations that are ambiguous and uncertain Miltenberger Miltenberger, R.
Behaviour Modification: Principles and Procedures. The theory focuses on the social realities of participants with implications for understanding social influence, messages, and meanings from their viewpoint. From this perception, social influence consists of the processes whereby people aggregate appropriate behaviour and form, maintain, or change social norms and the effects thereof, as well as the social conditions that give rise to such norms.
The Health Education Monograph Series, 20 2 , 73 — There is validation that people form and conform to social norms, and that there are influences intrinsic in social relationships and inherent pressures for agreement, even without instructions to agree or explicit group memberships Frank et al. Journal of Health Communication: International Perspectives, 17 9 , — AIDS and Behavior, 10 6 , — Social influence approaches emphasise behavioural expectations and standards social norms present in the environment and prepare the learner to resist pressure to engage in risk-taking behaviours Brown et al.
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Public Health Reports, 5 , — AIDS Behaviour, 14 4 , — In the case of HIV and AIDS, they observe that normal relations is noteworthy in creating a common representativeness of diseases which they argue is a generally fabricated outcome and practice of routine conversation p. Such structure sometimes determines how the disease is addressed based on how social networks view it and its impact within their environment or network.
The theory thus explains the potential of religious officials as social influencers and the impact FBOs might have in addressing HIV- and AIDS-related issues such as stigma and discrimination based on their socially constructed norms and their role in society. It is important to note that Lesotho has established a national-level policy on HIV and AIDS, including national strategic plans and other legislation. In the context of Lesotho, therefore, the social influence theory, more than any other theoretical postulations, serves as the premise for this study. Its validation and appropriateness are evinced by the findings made as well as the conclusions drawn.
There is indeed no universal definition of an FBO.
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The intent is to encourage any organisation that has a faith-inspired interest in providing services to apply for government or donor funds and that faith-based charities should be able to compete on equal footing for public funds to provide public services. It is therefore not uncommon for a church to establish separate community-based organisations — often they are community development corporations established to develop economic programmes and provide financial support for a community. Clarke Clarke, G. Journal of International Development, 18, — Quite often in developing countries, these FBOs have missionary work as their origins.
Overall, FBOs are organisations affiliated with a religious structure, doctrine, or congregation. However, FBOs are not simply those agencies that have vaguely stated religious motivation such as World Vision or origins such as Oxfam. Rather, they must have an active relationship with a religious institution such as Lutheran World Service or Caritas.
Seemingly, the invisibility of FBOs in community development work is now diminishing. There has been recognition more recently both within the development sector and by FBOs themselves that there is synergy to be gained by secular and sectarian agencies engaging with one another in a more purposeful manner. Governance and Inequality: Reflections on Faith Dimensions. Wilkinson Eds. New York , Routledge. Furthermore, FBOs themselves have also begun to spearhead interaction with aid donors to seek increased association and finance in community development interventions.
Over the past decade, a number of international platforms have been developed that have brought together FBOs and international donors to explore how to leverage the experience and expertise that both groups can bring to improving the lives of the poor. FBOs are now increasingly partnering development institutions in advancing their community and social justice initiatives Swart Swart, I.
Hjelm Ed. A distinctive abolition of the introverted nature of FBOs is the realisation that FBOs are also legitimate part of the civil society that offer gateway into local communities, networks across countries and regions, and, more often than not, expertise in community development processes and interventions. Faith-based Organizations and Development: Prospects and Constraints.
After all, enhancing aid effectiveness requires accessing and engaging with local communities and there is now the recognition that FBOs like NGOs can facilitate this access and engagement for donors.
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While FBOs have historically played an important role in delivering health and social services in developing countries, little research has been done on their role in HIV prevention and care, particularly in Africa. This paper summarises the findings of this exploratory study.
Finally, it provides recommendations for promising ways that FBOs can address the HIV epidemic, both independently and in collaboration with other entities, such as ministries of health. The ability of FBOs to successfully engage with the Basotho community around issues of sexuality and sexual practice portend lessons for other FBOs elsewhere seeking to reduce HIV transmission through sustained behaviour change.
This present study is the sixth in a series of case studies undertaken by the author since Together, the Lesotho case studies are designed to contribute to the understanding of the role of non-state actors in stemming the tide of the HIV and AIDS problem in Africa. The totality of the project aims to provide evidence on the socio-economic and political impacts of bottom-up strategies and initiatives. In addition, it aims to strengthen data collection processes and build capacity around ongoing evaluations.
The project promotes a mixed method approach to researching its sub-themes and their implications for the broader African region. The proximity of Lesotho to the author's institutional base as well as the availability of local assistants and Sesotho translators strengthened the author's choice of the Lesotho case study.
The data collection occurred principally between May and October and consisted of three primary data collection activities: a searches of published literature, grey literature i. Each interview lasted a minimum of two hours. Although the English language, which is widely spoken across Lesotho, was used in information-gathering, a native Sesotho speaker who served as a research assistant elaborated in Sesotho any questions that respondents seemed not to understand. This clarification was essential for accurate responses. Twelve of the 15 FBOs selected for the sample participated in the quantitative survey.
The main reason for non-participation was unavailability of a representative of the FBO to participate in a survey during the period allowed for data collection. Attempts to replace some of these potential respondents with others from the same denomination were unsuccessful.
The ages of respondents ranged between 30 and 72 years with a median of 46 years. All interviewees stated that female members outnumbered male members in the FBOs of which they were members. Through the published literature, organisational websites, and key informants, principal stakeholders involved in HIV and AIDS in Lesotho were identified. During site visits, a purposive sample of members of organisations that represented the range of organisations involved in HIV was interviewed. Further, within the FBO group, individuals representing a range of denominational groups Catholic, Evangelical, and Protestant were sought for inclusion.
In addition to purposive sampling, the snowball sampling method was used, where individuals interviewed were asked to identify other individuals or organisations in any of the above stakeholder categories. It could have been informative to interview FBOs that had not been involved to understand some of the challenges, but because of limited resources, this group was not included in the study.
On the other hand, although attempt was made to include representatives of other stakeholder groups e. Since note-taking was not appropriate during these visits, team discussions were audio-recorded, involving those who had participated in the site visit, immediately afterward usually driving to our next site visit or interview to document conversations and observations made during the visit, as well as any insights gained. Notes were then constructed from the audio-recordings. A qualitative analysis using descriptive and interpretative techniques followed the transcription of information.