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This makes the whole chain of production more costly. The production of biodiesel starts with oil extraction usually with hexane. The high fatty acid oil containing triglycerides reacts with alcohol usually methanol or ethanol to produce esters and glycerol in the presence of a catalyst KOH or NaOH.

The whole processes are reversible processes and are in three steps as shown in Eqs. Excess alcohol is desirable to accelerate the reaction towards the products side. The kinetics parameter kx are in Noureddini and Zhu [ 32 ].

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The main product is biodiesel and the by product is glycerol which are mainly used in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. The basic conversion scheme of the vegetable oil is shown in Figure 3.

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This centers on the emissions comparison of the finite fossil diesel with biodiesel. Shote et al. Besides, the result also shows gradual reduction of the emissions pattern as the concentration of PKO-based biodiesel increases in the blend. In general, the energy balance of most biodiesels is positive depending on the source of the vegetable oil, production, extraction and esterification. Zhang et al. The use of glycerol in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries will boost the energy balance of the biodiesel significantly.

Since biodiesel is gaining more ground in terms of the usage, then the energy balance tends to be more positive. Biodiesel are found to reduce greenhouse gas emissions [ 5 , 7 ]. Biodiesels also have the advantage of lubricating and bringing down the temperature of ICE. The generic NO x emissions are not significantly affected as the concentration of the blends increase in the fuel mixture [ 5 ].

NO x formation is governed by Zeldovich mechanism. Acid catalyst tetraoxosulphate VI acid is also used instead of alkali catalyst NaOH or KOH to lower the activation energy for quick formation of esters and glycerin. Other methods involve the use of enzyme to fast track the rate of chemical reaction and the formation of esters.

This method is very expensive because of the cost of enzyme which invariably affects the energy balance of the entire chain of production processes. The summary of the common methods used for the production of biodiesel are presented in Table 4. Fatty acid in vegetable oil [ 30 ].

Chemical structure of common fatty acids [ 31 ]. Different techniques for ester production [ 16 ]. Pyrolysis of oil : lignocellulosic biomass is usually used to synthesize bioethanol. The process normally starts with pretreatment procedures. However, any of the biomass substrates can be used to produce biodiesel. Research is till on going in the development of reactor for accelerated pyrolysis processes. A lot of investment and researches are still needed in this area so that the process and the end results will be economically reliable [ 33 ].

Hydrothermal upgrading process : this process involves hydrolysis of biomass at high pressure and moderate temperature to produce bio-crude. It is also at the development sage just like pyrolysis process. Dimethylether : this is produced from gasification of biomass.

It could also be obtained from natural gas.

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It is one of the conventional diesel fuel substitutes that is capable of cutting down NO x emissions from its combustion in CIE. It is commonly synthesized from methanol. Fischer-Tropsch : synthetic gas is produced from fossil fuels. Research is still on going to produce synthetic gas from biomass feedstock.

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In the past, the primary feedstock for its production is fossil fuel. The origin of this synthetic fuel can be traced to Germany. Production of synthetic fuel through pyrolysis of biomass is still under investigation. Synthetic fuel : this fuel is synthesized by recycling organic waste. A lot of work is going on in this area to optimize the processes. It can be blended with conventional fuel. Licensee IntechOpen.

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Green Petroleum : How oil and gas can be environmentally sustainable

Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. Downloaded: Abstract Various types of biofuels and feedstocks are considered and discussed in terms of their environmental and economic feasibilities. Keywords biofuel biodiesel bioethanol emission combustion. Introduction The serious concerns of the global climate change, the rising trend of environmental pollution among others have necessitated researchers and industries to develop renewable alternative and cleaner energies across the world.

Biofuel as an alternative fuel Researches are going on in the use of sustainable alternative fuels for automobile and stationery machines. Bioethanol The feedstocks include sorghum, sugar beet, wheat, cassava and so on.

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Pre-treatment for bioethanol The production and quality of bioethanol produced is significantly boosted by the pretreatment procedures. Table 1. Synthesis of bioethanol The traditional method involves liquefaction and saccharification of starch.

The ethanol conversion process The schematic process of production chain of bioethanol is depicted in Figure 1. Honda , which has offered a natural gas-fueled version of its Civic, recently updated that model, while General Motors is preparing a version of its Chevrolet Impala sedan.

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